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Dec. 4th, 2005

Make me a beast half as brave.

liquidxdiamonds

Verbs Used With Clothing

This entry kinda goes along with resultative verbs but I decided to make it it's own entry.


ITEMS TO PUT ON OR WEAR TO TAKE OFF
  on torso  
せびろ

上着

着物

コート

シャツ

セーター

ワンビース
着る 脱ぐ
  on legs or feet  
ズボン

スカート

ジーンズ



靴下
はく 脱ぐ
  on head  
帽子

ヘルメット
かぶる 脱ぐ、取る
ネクタイ しめる (する) 取る、はずす
  accessories;
things that need "attaching"
 
ベルト

ブラジャー

時計

イヤリング
する
取る、はずす
  on hands or fingers  
指輪 はめる
取る、はずす
眼鏡 かける
取る、はずす

Make me a beast half as brave.

liquidxdiamonds

Verbs - Resultative

These types of constructions are used to describe "as a result of something." There is not a special way to form verbs to express the result of something. Instead the て form is used.

1. Describing the Result of Change

田中さんを知っています。 I know Tanaka-san.

This sentence implies that in the past you met Tanaka and as a result you now know him. According to my foundation text this "indicates a past occurance of a change which has retained its significance until the present moment." This is why you use the て form which as you have already learned (or if you haven't the basic lesson on the て form is coming soon) expresses a continuation of an action.

アシュリーさんは別府に住んでいます。
Ashley lives in Beppu.

2. Describing What a Person Does

父はロコヒドマーチンにつとめています。
My father works for Lockheed Martin.

私はアーサイナス大学で勉強しています。
I study at Ursinus College.
Make me a beast half as brave.

liquidxdiamonds

Only and Nothing Else, ~しか

This is used to express only something and nothing else. It is always used with negative.

一千円しかもっていない
I have only 1000 yen, that's all.

しか replaces が and を but is added to other particles.
Tags:
Make me a beast half as brave.

liquidxdiamonds

Expressing When, If or After, ~たらConditional

A conditional statement is one that say, "If something happens, then this will happen." In Japanese that's expressed with the ~たらConditional. However, it can also can express when or if as well.


  Affirmative Negative  
Verb

I-adjective

Na-adjective
past plain form + ら past plain negative form + ら + resultant clause



1. If-Then Statements

雨が降ったら、ジョギングには行きません。
If it rains, I won't go jogging.

もし日本語を勉強したら、上手になります。
If I study Japanese, I will become good at it.

2. If-Request, Suggestion, Permission, Volition Statements

あたらしいゲームを買ったら、見せてください。
If you buy a new game, please show me.

昼ごはんを食べたら、勉強しましょう。
Let's study after we eat lunch.

3. Hypothetical Situations

お金があったら、ヂオルをかいたい。
If I had money, I would like to buy Dior.

男がもっとスマトーだったら、デートするんですが。。。
If that boy were smarter, I would date him.

4. When Statements

林さんのアパートへ行ったら、田中さんがいた。
When I went to Hayashi-san's apartment, Tanaka-san was there.

5. Express a Wish, Regret, Suggestion

あしたは晴れたらいいですね。
It would be nice if it's clear tomorrow, wouldn't it?
Make me a beast half as brave.

liquidxdiamonds

Verbs - Causative

When you want to make someone or permit someone to do something you use the causative form of verbs.


Group non-past past
  affirmative  negative affirmative  negative
Group I - aseru        
行く

飲む

買う

持つ
行かせる

飲ませる

買わせる

持たせる
行かせない

飲ませない

買わせない

持たせない
行かせた

飲ませた

買わせた

持たせた
行かせなかった

飲ませなかった

買わせなかった

持たせなかった
Group II - saseru        
食べる

見る

寝る
食べさせる

見させる

寝させる
食べさせない

見させない

寝させない
食べさせた

見させた

寝させた
 
Group III        
来る

する
こさせる

させる
こさせない

させない
こさせた

させた
こさせなかった

させなかった



1. causer は + causee を + causative V (intransitive)

先生は学生をたたせた。 The teacher made the student stand up.

2. causer は + causee に + direct object を + causative V (transitive)

先生わ学生に辞書を使わせた。 The teacher permitted the students to use the dictionary.
お母さんは子どもに部屋を掃除させます。 The mother made the child clean her room.
Make me a beast half as brave.

liquidxdiamonds

Honorifics (Keigo), Part III - Honorific Requests

Honorific requests are usually those heard when you are out and about shopping, getting insurance, going to restaurants or talking on the telephone. While it's popular belief that the Japanese are polite and because of this use polite language, this is actually not the case. Japanese simply did not ever want anyone to understand their system of hierarchy although I believe it's something like you-->poop-->insects-->dogs-->salarymen etc etc. Haha, ok this isn't true, but I hate honorifics...on to the lesson!

Verbs: お + Verb Base + ください


お待ちください。 Please wait.
お書きください。 Please write.
お座りください。 Please sit.
お乗りください。 Please ride.

Exceptions:

見てください=ごらんください。Please take a look.
ねてください=お休みください。Please go to bed.
すわってください=おかけください。Please sit down.

Verbal Nouns: ご/お + Verbal Noun + ください


ご連絡ください。Please contact me.
ご説明ください。Please explain.

Exceptions: 電話する=お電話ください。 This one uses お instead.
Make me a beast half as brave.

liquidxdiamonds

Giving and Receiving Actions

In addition to nouns, actions can also be given and recieved in Japanese. This is a little bit difficult for translating to English since there isn't an exact way to translate. However, the easiest way to explain is that when someone does something for you, they literally give you the action. For example, teaching, taking someone somewhere, showing someone around: all of these can be expressed as giving this action to someone in Japanese. Of course when the opposite is true, actions are being recieved.

Basic Structure: V-てあがる、もらう、くれる


アシュリーさんはカタリナさんに英語を教えてあげます。
Ashley-san teaches Katharina-san English. (lit. Ashley-san gives her knowledge of English to Katharina-san.)

カタリナさんはアシュリーさんに英語を教えてもらいます。
Katharina-san has Ashley-san teacher her Englisn. (lit. Katharina is recieving Ashley-san's knowledge of English.)

カタリナさんは、私にドイツ語を教えてくれます。
Katharina-san is kind enough to teach me German.
* くれます is used when you yourself (私) are recieving something.

When you want to be polite or if someone is superior than you you use さしあげる、いたたく、くださる. These are the honorific forms of あげる、もらう、くれる. To learn more about honorifics, check out the memories section and find Honorifics and Keigo.

The following example is different in that the person takes を instead of に. I have yet to come up with a good explanation on why this is so, so if anyone wants to offer a better explanation I will glad put it here ^__^.

カタリナさんはアシュリーさんデパート送ってあげます。
Katharina-san will take Ashley-san to the department store.
Make me a beast half as brave.

liquidxdiamonds

Wanting Someone to Do Something, ~てほしい

When you want someone to do something, you express it in the following form:

Positive: て form of Verb + ほしい
Negative: て form of Verb ないでほしい


先生にクイズをかんたんにしてほしい。
(The students want) the teacher to make the quiz easier. (students are implied in this sentence)

私は恋人に花をあげてほしい。
I want my boyfriend to give me flowers.
Tags: ,
i turn to jesus

delicioussakura

もう、まだ

An action that has not been carried out or completed can be expressed with V~ていない, which indicates a state where an action has not taken place.
まだ+V~ていない means not yet.

もう+postive V means alreay.

もう昼ご飯を食べましたか。           
Have you eaten lunch yet?

いいえ、まだ食べていません。       
No, I haven't eaten yet.

私はもう食べました。               
I have eaten already.

Make me a beast half as brave.

liquidxdiamonds

To Do Something and Go Away, ~ていく

There are many many many many MANY ways that the -te forms is used. Here is one of them!

Basic Structure: V~て行く


パーテイー時、料理して行きます。

When there is a party, I make food. (lit. When there is a party I make food and then go.)
Tags:

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